Al Qanoon Fil Tibb: The Canon of Medicine by Ibn Sina
Al Qanoon Fil Tibb, or The Canon of Medicine, is one of the most influential and comprehensive books on medicine ever written. It was composed by Abu Ali Ibn Sina, also known as Avicenna, in the 11th century CE. The book covers various aspects of medical theory and practice, such as anatomy, physiology, pathology, diagnosis, pharmacology, surgery, and ethics. It is based on the ancient Greek and Islamic sources, as well as Ibn Sina's own observations and experiments.
The Canon of Medicine was translated into many languages, including Latin, Hebrew, Persian, Turkish, and Urdu. It became a standard reference for medical students and practitioners in Europe and the Islamic world for centuries. It influenced many later scholars and scientists, such as Maimonides, Paracelsus, Vesalius, Harvey, and Newton.
One of the oldest copies of the second volume of The Canon of Medicine is preserved by the Institute of Manuscripts of Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences (IMANAS). It dates back to 1030 CE and contains illustrations and annotations. It is part of the documentary heritage submitted by Azerbaijan to the UNESCO Memory of the World Register in 2005.
If you are interested in reading The Canon of Medicine in Urdu, you can find a hardcover edition on Amazon.com[^1^]. You can also download a PDF version of the book from pdfFiller[^3^], a website that allows you to fill, edit, and sign documents online.
Avicenna was born in 980 CE near Bukhara, in present-day Uzbekistan. He was a precocious child who learned the Qur'an by heart at age 10 and mastered logic and medicine by age 16. He became a court physician to the local ruler and gained access to the royal library, where he studied the works of ancient Greek and Islamic scholars. He also began to write his own books on various subjects, such as philosophy, theology, astronomy, mathematics, and poetry.
Avicenna's life was full of travels and troubles. He served as a physician and adviser to several rulers and princes, but he also faced political intrigues, imprisonment, and persecution. He escaped from one city to another, often hiding his identity and works. He died in 1037 CE in Hamadan, Iran, where he was buried. His tomb became a monument of national pride and a symbol of Iranian identity.
Avicenna's legacy is immense and lasting. He wrote about 450 works, of which around 240 have survived. His most famous and influential work is The Canon of Medicine, a five-volume encyclopedia that synthesized the medical knowledge of his time and added his own original contributions. It was translated into Latin in the 12th century and became the standard textbook of medicine in Europe for over 500 years. It was also widely used in the Islamic world and beyond, reaching India, China, and Africa.
Avicenna was not only a physician and a scientist, but also a philosopher and a theologian. He wrote extensively on various branches of philosophy, such as logic, metaphysics, ethics, psychology, and natural philosophy. He was influenced by the works of Aristotle and the Neoplatonists, as well as by the Islamic thinkers al-Kindi and al-Farabi. He also engaged with the theological debates of his time, especially with the Mu'tazilites and the Ash'arites.
Avicenna's philosophy is based on the idea of a rational system that can explain all aspects of reality, both natural and supernatural. He argues that there is a single Necessary Being, whom he identifies with God, who is the cause of all existence and who emanates a series of intelligences and souls that govern the celestial spheres and the sublunary world. He also maintains that human beings have rational souls that can survive death and attain happiness through knowledge and virtue.
Avicenna's philosophy had a profound impact on both the Islamic and the Western intellectual traditions. His works were translated into Latin, Hebrew, Persian, Turkish, and other languages, and were studied and commented upon by many scholars and thinkers. He was admired by some, such as Thomas Aquinas and Maimonides, and criticized by others, such as al-Ghazali and Averroes. He was also a source of inspiration for many mystics, poets, and artists. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest philosophers of all time. 061ffe29dd