What is Ajdukiewicz's Pragmatic Logic and How to Download It in PDF Format
Pragmatic logic is a branch of logic that studies the rules of correct reasoning in relation to the purposes and goals of human activity. It was developed by the Polish philosopher and logician Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz in his book Logika pragmatyczna (Pragmatic Logic), published in 1965.
Ajdukiewicz's pragmatic logic differs from traditional logic in that it does not assume a fixed set of logical constants, such as conjunction, negation, or implication. Instead, it allows for the introduction of new logical symbols and rules depending on the context and the intended use of language. For example, in some situations, it may be useful to introduce a symbol for \"probably\" or \"possibly\", and define its meaning and logical properties accordingly.
Ajdukiewicz's pragmatic logic also takes into account the pragmatic aspects of communication, such as the speaker's intentions, the listener's expectations, and the common knowledge shared by both parties. It analyzes how these factors affect the interpretation and evaluation of arguments and statements. For example, in some situations, it may be acceptable to use a weaker or stronger form of expression than what is strictly implied by the logical rules, depending on the purpose and the effect of the speech act.
Ajdukiewicz's pragmatic logic has been influential in various fields of philosophy, linguistics, artificial intelligence, and computer science. It has also inspired other logicians to develop similar or alternative approaches to logic that take into account the pragmatic dimension of reasoning and language.
If you are interested in learning more about Ajdukiewicz's pragmatic logic, you can download his book Logika pragmatyczna in PDF format from several online sources. One of them is Scribd[^2^], where you can find a scanned copy of the original Polish edition. Another one is PhilPapers[^1^], where you can find a bibliographic entry with a link to a PDF file. However, you may need to register or pay a fee to access these sources.
Alternatively, you can also look for other books or articles that discuss or explain Ajdukiewicz's pragmatic logic in English or other languages. For example, you can check out the following works:
The Polish 20th Century Philosophersâ Contribution to the Theory of Imperatives and Norms by Jacek Jadacki
A verisimilitudinarian analysis of the Linda paradox by Gustavo Cevolani, Vincenzo Crupi & Roberto Festa
Struktura pytaÅ (The Structure of Questions) by Adam Jonkisz
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What are the main features of Ajdukiewicz's pragmatic logic
One of the main features of Ajdukiewicz's pragmatic logic is that it is a non-classical logic, meaning that it does not follow some of the standard rules or principles of classical logic, such as the law of excluded middle or the law of non-contradiction. This allows for the possibility of dealing with inconsistent or incomplete information, as well as expressing degrees of certainty or uncertainty.
Another feature of Ajdukiewicz's pragmatic logic is that it is a context-sensitive logic, meaning that the meaning and validity of logical expressions depend on the specific situation or domain in which they are used. This allows for the flexibility and adaptability of language and reasoning to different purposes and goals.
A third feature of Ajdukiewicz's pragmatic logic is that it is a normative logic, meaning that it provides criteria and guidelines for evaluating the quality and effectiveness of arguments and statements. These criteria and guidelines are based on the pragmatic aspects of communication, such as relevance, coherence, clarity, persuasiveness, and so on.
What are some applications of Ajdukiewicz's pragmatic logic
Ajdukiewicz's pragmatic logic has been applied to various fields and problems that require a non-classical, context-sensitive, and normative approach to logic and reasoning. Some examples are:
The philosophy of science: Ajdukiewicz's pragmatic logic can be used to analyze the structure and dynamics of scientific theories, methods, and explanations, as well as the criteria for their acceptance or rejection. It can also account for the role of values, interests, and social factors in scientific inquiry (da Costa and French 1989; 1990; 1993a; Bueno 1996; 1997).
The philosophy of language: Ajdukiewicz's pragmatic logic can be used to study the meaning and use of natural language expressions, especially those that involve modalities, probabilities, vagueness, ambiguity, presupposition, implicature, and speech acts. It can also account for the diversity and evolution of natural languages (Mikenberg et al. 1986; da Costa et al. forthcoming).
The philosophy of mathematics: Ajdukiewicz's pragmatic logic can be used to examine the foundations and methods of mathematics, as well as the relations between mathematics and reality. It can also account for the plurality and creativity of mathematical practices (da Costa 1974; 1975; 1986).
The philosophy of mind: Ajdukiewicz's pragmatic logic can be used to explore the nature and functions of mental phenomena, such as beliefs, desires, intentions, emotions, and consciousness. It can also account for the interactions between mind and world (Mead 1934; Jonkisz 2020).
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